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Simon Long

Class 2010
Education VMD, University of Pennsylvania

Dr. Gary Hayward

Research Interests

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which causes a rapid acute hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephant calves (Elephas maximus), was first reported in 1999 and has resulted in more than 75 reported young captive Asian elephant deaths in the zoos, circuses and wild. Seven different species of EEHVs have been identified to date. Research on these viruses has been inhibited due to the inability to grow these viruses in cell cultures. The goal of my research is to propagate EEHV in a cell culture line to investigate the pathogenesis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) using molecule techniques. The ability to grow and propagate this virus in the laboratory conditions is so critical for the progress of future research towards understanding the biology and pathology of this virus, as well as for any hoped for possibility of generating live attenuated vaccines, that additional innovative approaches must be carried out as one of the top priority goals of EEHV research.


Fuery A, Browning GR, Tan J, Long S, Hayward GS, Cox SK, Flanagan JP, Tocidlowski ME, Howard LL, Ling PD. CLINICAL INFECTION OF CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 4. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2016 Mar;47(1):311-8. doi: 10.1638/2015-0072.1. PMID: 27010293

Long SY, Latimer EM, Hayward GS. Review of Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses and Acute Hemorrhagic Disease. ILAR J. 2016 Feb 24;56(3):283-96. doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilv041. PMID: 26912715

Zong JC, Heaggans SY, Long SY, Latimer EM, Nofs SA, Bronson E, Casares M, Fouraker MD, Pearson VR, Richman LK, Hayward GS. Detection of Quiescent Infections with Multiple Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHVs), Including EEHV2, EEHV3, EEHV6, and EEHV7, within Lymphoid Lung Nodules or Lung and Spleen Tissue Samples from Five Asymptomatic Adult African Elephants.J Virol. 2015 Dec 30;90(6):3028-43. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02936-15. PMID: 26719245

Zong JC, Latimer EM, Long SY, Richman LK, Heaggans SY, Hayward GS. Comparative genome analysis of four elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses, EEHV3, EEHV4, EEHV5, and EEHV6, from cases of hemorrhagic disease or viremia. J Virol. 2014 Dec;88(23):13547-69. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01675-14. Epub 2014 Sep 17. PMID: 25231309

Sartori DJ, Wilbur CJ, Long SY, Rankin MM, Li C, Bradfield JP, Hakonarson H, Grant SF, Pu WT, Kushner JA. GATA factors promote ER integrity and β-cell survival and contribute to type 1 diabetes risk. Mol Endocrinol. 2014 Jan;28(1):28-39. doi: 10.1210/me.2013-1265. Epub 2013 Jan 1. PMID: 24284823

Zachariah A, Zong JC, Long SY, Latimer EM, Heaggans SY, Richman LK, Hayward GS. Fatal herpesvirus hemorrhagic disease in wild and orphan asian elephants in southern India. J Wildl Dis. 2013 Apr;49(2):381-93. doi: 10.7589/2012-07-193. PMID: 23568914

Cowley TJ, Long SY, Weiss SR. The murine coronavirus nucleocapsid gene is a determinant of virulence. J Virol. 2010 Feb;84(4):1752-63. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01758-09. Epub 2009 Dec 9. PMID: 20007284

He LM, Sartori DJ, Teta M, Opare-Addo LM, Rankin MM, Long SY, Diehl JA, Kushner JA. Cyclin D2 protein stability is regulated in pancreatic beta-cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2009 Nov;23(11):1865-75. doi: 10.1210/me.2009-0057. Epub 2009 Jul 23. PMID: 19628581

Teta M, Rankin MM, Long SY, Stein GM, Kushner JA. Growth and regeneration of adult beta cells does not involve specialized progenitors. Dev Cell. 2007 May;12(5):817-26. PMID: 17488631

Teta M, Long SY, Wartschow LM, Rankin MM, Kushner JA. Very slow turnover of beta-cells in aged adult mice. Diabetes. 2005 Sep;54(9):2557-67. PMID: 16123343

Kushner JA, Ciemerych MA, Sicinska E, Wartschow LM, Teta M, Long SY, Sicinski P, White MF. Cyclins D2 and D1 are essential for postnatal pancreatic beta-cell growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 May;25(9):3752-62. PMID: 15831479